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\title[Nonlinear ESSI for Design]
{Use of Nonlinear, \\
Time Domain Analysis for \\
Design}
%\subtitle
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\author[Jeremi{\'c} et al.] % (optional, use only with lots of authors)
%{Boris~Jeremi{\'c}}
{
Neboj{\v s}a Orbovi{\'c},
{\bf Boris Jeremi{\'c}}, \\
Jos{\' e} Antonio Abell Mena,
Chao Luo, \\
Robert P. Kennedy and
Andrei Blaihoanu,
}
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%%{ Professor, University of California, Davis\\
%{
%%Professor, UCD\\
%% Faculty Scientist, LBNL \\
%% Consulting Engineer, Davis, CA, USA }
%%{ Professor, University of California, Davis, CA, USA\\
%% Faculty Scientist, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA \\
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{\small SMiRT, Manchester, UK, \\
August 2015}
\subject{}
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\section{Introduction}
\subsection*{Motivation}
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\begin{frame}
\frametitle{Motivation}
\begin{itemize}
%\vspace*{0.3cm}
\item Improve seismic design, safety and economy, of Nuclear Power Plants
(NPPs)
%\vspace*{0.1cm}
\vspace*{3mm}
\item Follow seismic energy within NPP ESSI system
\vspace*{3mm}
\item Accurate, high fidelity numerical modeling and simulation of Nonlinear
{E}arthquake {S}oil {S}tructure {I}nteraction ({ESSI}), in time and space,
for realistic analysis of NPP response
%
%\vspace*{0.1cm}
\vspace*{3mm}
\item Use realistic nonlinear ESSI for design!
% %\vspace*{0.1cm}
% \vspace*{1mm}
% % \item Development of high fidelity numerical modeling and simulation tool
% \item High fidelity numerical modeling and simulation
% The {Real ESSI} Simulator
% % (
% % {\small aka}: {\cyrssDvanaest Stvarno Lako},
% % {\small aka}: {\cyrssDvanaest Vrlo Prosto},
% % { Muy F{\'a}cil},
% % {Molto Facile},
% % \raisebox{-1.2mm}{\includegraphics[height=5mm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/lecture_notes_SOKOCALO/Figure-files/Real_ESSI_in_different_langauges/Real_ESSI_Chinese.jpeg}},
% % \raisebox{-1.2mm}{\includegraphics[height=5mm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/lecture_notes_SOKOCALO/Figure-files/Real_ESSI_in_different_langauges/Real_ESSI_Japanese.jpg}},
% % {\greektext{Pragmatik'a E'ukolo}},
% % \raisebox{-1.2mm}{\includegraphics[height=5mm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/lecture_notes_SOKOCALO/Figure-files/Real_ESSI_in_different_langauges/Real_ESSI_Farsi.jpg}},
% % {Tr{\`e}s Facile},
% % {\cyrssDvanaest Vistinski Lesno},
% % {Wirklich Einfach})
% %
% %\vspace*{1mm}
% % \item Goal is to predict and inform, not diagnose or fit.
% % \item Modeling and simulation goal is to predict and inform, not diagnose or fit
%
%
\end{itemize}
\end{frame}
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\begin{frame}
\frametitle{Predictive Capabilities}
% \frametitle{High Fidelity Modeling of SFS System:
% Verification, Validation and Prediction}
\begin{itemize}
\item High fidelity, accurate modeling and simulation: Verification and Validation
%\vspace*{1mm}
\item {{ Verification} provides evidence that the model is solved
correctly.} Mathematics issue.
%\vspace*{0.1cm}
%\vspace*{1mm}
\item {{ Validation} provides evidence that the correct model is
solved.} Physics issue.
% %\vspace*{0.1cm}
% \vspace*{1mm}
% \item { Prediction under Uncertainty (!)}: use of computational model
% to foretell the state of a physical system under consideration under
% conditions for which the computational model has not been validated.
%\vspace*{1mm}
\item Verification and validation (V\&V) require huge effort!
%\vspace*{1mm}
\item Verification procedures in development
% (there is no published verification
% work for solids/structures, we have a draft)
%\vspace*{1mm}
\item Validation almost non-existent (new U.S. DOE project will add
significantly to ESSI validation data base)
%\vspace*{1mm}
\item Modeling and Parametric Uncertainties (sensitivity studies are very important)
%
% SENSITIVITY STUDIES
%
%\vspace*{1mm}
% \item Predictive capabilities with {low Kolmogorov Complexity}
%
% \vspace*{3mm}
% \item Modeling and simulation goal is to inform, not fit
%
%
\end{itemize}
\end{frame}
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%
%\subsection*{Uncertainties}
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\begin{frame}
\frametitle{Uncertainties}
\begin{itemize}
\item Modeling Uncertainty: important features are neglected (6D
ground motions, inelasticity), \\
unrealistic and unnecessary \\
modeling
simplifications
\vspace*{-14mm}
\begin{figure}[!hbpt]
\begin{flushright}
%
\hspace*{15mm}
\includegraphics[width=1.0truecm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Conferences/2015/SMiRT_23/PresentDesign/Simple_NPP_stick_model.pdf}
\hspace*{1mm}
% \hfill
\includegraphics[width=3truecm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Conferences/2015/SMiRT_23/PresentDesign/Full_NPP_shell_solids_model.jpeg}
%\hspace*{5mm}
% %
\end{flushright}
\end{figure}
%\vspace*{1mm}
\item Parametric Uncertainty: spatial variability, measuring and transformation errors
%\vspace*{-3mm}
\begin{figure}[!hbpt]
\begin{center}
%
\hspace*{-7mm}
\includegraphics[width=5.0truecm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Papers/2008/JGGE-GoverGmax/figures/YoungModulus_RawData_and_MeanTrend_01-Ed.pdf}
% \hfill
\includegraphics[width=4truecm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Papers/2008/JGGE-GoverGmax/figures/YoungModulus_Histogram_Normal_01-Ed.pdf}
%
\end{center}
\end{figure}
\vspace*{-3mm}
%\hspace*{-3.3cm}
\begin{center}
{\tiny
Transformation of SPT $N$-value:
1-D Young's modulus, $E$ \\
(cf. Phoon and Kulhawy (1999B))\\
~}
\end{center}
\end{itemize}
\end{frame}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{frame}
\frametitle{Realistic, Nonlinear ESSI Modeling}
\begin{itemize}
\item Nonlinear behavior
\begin{itemize}
\item Nonlinear, inelastic (saturated or dry) soil/rock
\vspace*{0.5mm}
\item Nonlinear, inelastic (saturated or dry) contact
\vspace*{0.5mm}
\item Nonlinear, inelastic structures, systems and components
\vspace*{0.5mm}
\item Buoyant (nonlinear) forces
\end{itemize}
%\vspace*{1mm}
\item Full 3D (6D) Earthquake motions
%\vspace*{1mm}
\item Uncertain material and loads
%\vspace*{1mm}
\item Verification and validation for accurate numerical simulations
%\vspace*{1mm}
\item Real ESSI Simulator (developed in collaboration and with the support of
NRC, CNSC, DOE)
\end{itemize}
\end{frame}
% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{frame}
\frametitle{Realistic, nonlinear ESSI for Design}
\begin{itemize}
%
% \item High fidelity modeling:
%
% \begin{itemize}
%
% \item Seismic Motions: 6D, inclined, body and surface waves
% (translations, rotations); Incoherency
%
% %\vspace*{3mm}
% \item Inelastic material: soil, rock, concrete, steel;
% Contacts, foundation--soil, dry, saturated slip--gap; Nonlinear buoyant
% forces; Isolators, Dissipators
%
%
% %\vspace*{3mm}
% \item Uncertain loading and material
% \end{itemize}
%
%
%
%
% \item Nonlinear analysis for design
%
%
% \begin{itemize}
\vspace*{3mm}
\item Design standards require structure to be elastic
% so we hard-code that
% in our models (!?)
\vspace*{3mm}
\item Anything below foundation can be modeled as nonlinear
\vspace*{3mm}
\item Possible reduction of demand due to nonlinearities in soil/rock and contact zone
\vspace*{3mm}
\item Assesment of NPP designs using sweeps of earthquakes/motions and realistic nonlinear ESSI analysis
% \end{itemize}
\end{itemize}
\end{frame}
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\section{Nonlinear ESSI in Design}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\subsection*{Results of Nonlinear Analysis}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{frame}
\frametitle{Earthquake Motions}
\begin{itemize}
\item Earthquake record: Taiwan SMART1(45), Time: 11/14/1986, Station:SMART1 E02.
%
\begin{figure}[!htb]
\begin{center}
\includegraphics[width=3cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Conferences/2015/SMiRT_23/_XX_Use_of_Nonlinear_Time_Domain_Analysis_for_NPP_Design/Paper/acceleration_time_history.pdf}
\hfill
\includegraphics[width=3cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Conferences/2015/SMiRT_23/_XX_Use_of_Nonlinear_Time_Domain_Analysis_for_NPP_Design/Paper/acceleration_FFT.pdf}
\hfill
\includegraphics[width=3cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Conferences/2015/SMiRT_23/_XX_Use_of_Nonlinear_Time_Domain_Analysis_for_NPP_Design/Paper/acceleration_Response_Spectrum.pdf}
\end{center}
%\caption{Free field seismic motions at the surface:
% time history, FFT and response spectra.}
\label{motions}
\end{figure}
\vspace*{2mm}
\item Horizontal \#1: 100\%, horizontal \#2: 40\%, vertical: 40\%
\vspace*{2mm}
\item Full application of 3D motions, no superposition allowed (nonlinear analysis)
% NO SUPERPOSITION Used assumption of 3 $\times$ 1D earthquake motions (!?) as required
\end{itemize}
\end{frame}
%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{frame}
\frametitle{Earthquake Motion Input into FEM Model}
\begin{itemize}
\item Domain Reduction Method (Bielak et al.)
%\vspace*{2mm}
\item Capable of accurately inputting all body (P, SV, SH) and surface (Rayleigh, Love,
etc.) earthquake waves into a finite element model
%\vspace*{2mm}
\item Free field motions needed for input effective forces
%\vspace*{2mm}
\item Radiated waves from the structures leave the system
%\vspace*{2mm}
\item Inside DRM finite element layer can be fully nonlinear (elastic-plastic)
\end{itemize}
%
\vspace*{-6mm}
\begin{figure}[!hbpt]
\begin{center}
\includegraphics[width=10cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/lecture_notes_SOKOCALO/Figure-files/_Chapter_Applications_Earthquake_Soil_Structure_Interaction_General_Aspects/tex_works_psfigures_DRM_NPP_idea03_with_element.pdf}
\end{center}
\end{figure}
\end{frame}
%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{frame}
\frametitle{Finite Element Model}
\begin{itemize}
\item Soil/Rock, solids, linear elastic (can be fully elastic-plastic)
\item Contact (soil/rock -- foundation slab) fully nonlinear, Coulomb friction
(friction coefficient $\mu = 0.5$, taking into account plastic sheets beneath
foundation) and gaping
\item Structure (stick model) linear elastic (can use a far more sophisticated
structural model, however this is a demonstration)
\item Seismic input using DRM
\end{itemize}
\vspace*{-13mm}
\begin{figure}[!htb]
\begin{center}
\hspace*{-6mm}
\includegraphics[width=5cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Conferences/2015/SMiRT_23/_XX_Use_of_Nonlinear_Time_Domain_Analysis_for_NPP_Design/Paper/fig01.jpg}
\hfill
\includegraphics[width=6cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Conferences/2015/SMiRT_23/_XX_Use_of_Nonlinear_Time_Domain_Analysis_for_NPP_Design/Paper/fig02.jpg}
\hspace*{-6mm}
\end{center}
\label{Model}
\end{figure}
%
\end{frame}
%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{frame}
\frametitle{Foundation -- Soil/Rock Slip}
\begin{itemize}
\item Foundation slab slips significantly during an earthquake
\item Base isolation (?!) and energy dissipation
\item Soil on the side restricts movements
\item Minimal gaping as contact sleeps before slab lifts-off
\end{itemize}
\vspace*{-6mm}
\begin{figure}[!htb]
\begin{center}
\hspace*{-6mm}
\includegraphics[width=2.5cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Conferences/2015/SMiRT_23/_XX_Use_of_Nonlinear_Time_Domain_Analysis_for_NPP_Design/Paper/slip_at_1_percent_02.jpg}
\hfill
\includegraphics[width=9cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Conferences/2015/SMiRT_23/_XX_Use_of_Nonlinear_Time_Domain_Analysis_for_NPP_Design/Paper/Slipping.pdf}
\hspace*{-6mm}
%\caption{Snapshot of a relative displacements between foundation slab and
%soil/rock (left) and the amount of slip at a center of a foundation slab
%(beneath containment and internal sticks).}
\end{center}
\label{slip}
\end{figure}
\end{frame}
%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{frame}
\frametitle{Nonlinear vs Linear Response, Top of Soil}
\begin{itemize}
\item Reduction in soil horizontal demand
\item Amplification of vertical due to pounding upon contact
\item Soil horizontal and vertical peaks at the same frequency, hence
vertical motions are from a Rayleigh surface wave
\end{itemize}
\vspace*{-7mm}
%
\begin{figure}[!htb]
\begin{center}
\hspace*{-7mm}
\includegraphics[width=6cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Conferences/2015/SMiRT_23/_XX_Use_of_Nonlinear_Time_Domain_Analysis_for_NPP_Design/Paper/results_24June2015/SA_X_base_soil_3d_nonlin_vs_linear.pdf}
% %\\
% \includegraphics[width=6cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Conferences/2015/SMiRT_23/_XX_Use_of_Nonlinear_Time_Domain_Analysis_for_NPP_Design/Paper/results_24June2015/SA_Y_base_soil_3d_nonlin_vs_linear.pdf}
% %\\
\includegraphics[width=6cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Conferences/2015/SMiRT_23/_XX_Use_of_Nonlinear_Time_Domain_Analysis_for_NPP_Design/Paper/results_24June2015/SA_Z_base_soil_3d_nonlin_vs_linear.pdf}
% %\includegraphics[width=12cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Conferences/2015/SMiRT_23/_XX_Use_of_Nonlinear_Time_Domain_Analysis_for_NPP_Design/Paper/results_17June2015/Comparissons/FFT_Accel_containment_building_1percent_vs_10percent.pdf}
% \caption{\label{comparison_soil} Comparison of spectral accelerations at
% the top of soil, beneath foundation slab for X directions (left),
% %Y direction (middle)
% and
% vertical directions (right).}
\end{center}
\end{figure}
\vspace*{-7mm}
\hspace*{1.7cm}horizontal\hspace*{4.3cm}vertical
\end{frame}
%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{frame}
\frametitle{Nonlinear vs Linear Response, Foundation Slab}
\begin{itemize}
% \item Horizontal and vertical peaks at same frequency, hence vertical motions are
% from a surface Rayleigh wave
\item Horizontal reduced at high frequency, due to slip,
\item Horizontal slightly increased at low frequency, due to slip,
\item Vertical reduced
\end{itemize}
\vspace*{-7mm}
\begin{figure}[!htb]
\begin{center}
\hspace*{-7mm}
\includegraphics[width=6cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Conferences/2015/SMiRT_23/_XX_Use_of_Nonlinear_Time_Domain_Analysis_for_NPP_Design/Paper/results_24June2015/SA_X_base_footing_3d_nonlin_vs_linear.pdf}
% %\\
% \includegraphics[width=4cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Conferences/2015/SMiRT_23/_XX_Use_of_Nonlinear_Time_Domain_Analysis_for_NPP_Design/Paper/results_24June2015/SA_Y_base_footing_3d_nonlin_vs_linear.pdf}
% %\\
\includegraphics[width=6cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Conferences/2015/SMiRT_23/_XX_Use_of_Nonlinear_Time_Domain_Analysis_for_NPP_Design/Paper/results_24June2015/SA_Z_base_footing_3d_nonlin_vs_linear.pdf}
%\includegraphics[width=12cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Conferences/2015/SMiRT_23/_XX_Use_of_Nonlinear_Time_Domain_Analysis_for_NPP_Design/Paper/results_17June2015/Comparissons/FFT_Accel_containment_building_1percent_vs_10percent.pdf}
% \caption{\label{comparison_foundation} Comparison of spectral accelerations at the foundation slab for
% X directions (left),
% %Y direction (middle) and
% and vertical directions (right).}
\end{center}
\end{figure}
\vspace*{-7mm}
\hspace*{1.7cm}horizontal\hspace*{4.3cm}vertical
\end{frame}
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\begin{frame}
\frametitle{Nonlinear vs Linear Response, Top of Containment}
\begin{itemize}
\item Significant reduction of horizontal motions
\item Reduction of vertical motions
\end{itemize}
\vspace*{-7mm}
\begin{figure}[!htb]
\begin{center}
\hspace*{-7mm}
%\includegraphics[width=6cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Conferences/2015/SMiRT_23/_XX_Use_of_Nonlinear_Time_Domain_Analysis_for_NPP_Design/Paper/results_24June2015/SA_X_containment_building_top_3d_nonlin_vs_linear.pdf}
\includegraphics[width=6cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Conferences/2015/SMiRT_23/PresentDesign/FromJose/SA_X_containment_building_top_3d_nonlin_vs_linear.pdf}
%\\
%\includegraphics[width=8cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Conferences/2015/SMiRT_23/_XX_Use_of_Nonlinear_Time_Domain_Analysis_for_NPP_Design/Paper/results_24June2015/SA_Y_containment_building_top_3d_nonlin_vs_linear.pdf}
%\\
%\includegraphics[width=6cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Conferences/2015/SMiRT_23/_XX_Use_of_Nonlinear_Time_Domain_Analysis_for_NPP_Design/Paper/results_24June2015/SA_Z_containment_building_top_3d_nonlin_vs_linear.pdf}
\includegraphics[width=6cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Conferences/2015/SMiRT_23/PresentDesign/FromJose/SA_Z_containment_building_top_3d_nonlin_vs_linear.pdf}
%\includegraphics[width=12cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Conferences/2015/SMiRT_23/_XX_Use_of_Nonlinear_Time_Domain_Analysis_for_NPP_Design/Paper/results_17June2015/Comparissons/FFT_Accel_containment_building_1percent_vs_10percent.pdf}
% \caption{\label{comparison_containment} Comparison of spectral accelerations at the top of a containment
% structure for
% X directions (left),
% %Y direction (middle)
% and
% vertical directions (right).}
\end{center}
\end{figure}
\vspace*{-7mm}
\hspace*{1.7cm}horizontal\hspace*{4.3cm}vertical
\end{frame}
%
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\begin{frame}
\frametitle{Nonlinear vs Linear Response, Comments}
\begin{itemize}
\item In general, significant reductions in motions for nonlinear response, both
horizontally and vertically
\vspace*{4mm}
\item Larger horizontal slip, low frequency response
%df
, at $2$Hz, validated by slip response
\vspace*{4mm}
\item Structure is still linear elastic (by modeling) and hence satisfies standard design
\end{itemize}
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\end{frame}
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\section{Summary}
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\begin{frame}
\frametitle{Concluding Remarks}
\begin{itemize}
\vspace*{3mm}
\item Nonlinear analysis can be used for design
\vspace*{3mm}
\item Potential for reduction of demand with realistic nonlinear analysis
\vspace*{3mm}
\item Assesment of NPP SSI systems using fully nonlinear, realistic ESSI analysis
\end{itemize}
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% \begin{center}
% \includegraphics[width=2.20cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Conferences/2014/DOE_Natural_Phenomena_Hazards_Germantown_MD-21-22Oct/present/Model01.jpeg}
% \includegraphics[width=2.20cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Conferences/2014/DOE_Natural_Phenomena_Hazards_Germantown_MD-21-22Oct/present/Model02.jpeg}
% \includegraphics[width=2.20cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Conferences/2014/DOE_Natural_Phenomena_Hazards_Germantown_MD-21-22Oct/present/Model03.jpeg}
% \includegraphics[width=2.20cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Conferences/2014/DOE_Natural_Phenomena_Hazards_Germantown_MD-21-22Oct/present/Model04.jpeg}
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% \frametitle{Acknowledgement}
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% \begin{itemize}
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%
%
% \vspace*{0.1cm}
% \item Funding from and collaboration with the
% US-NRC,
% US-DOE,
% US-NSF,
% CNSC,
% Shimizu Corp., and
% AREVA NP GmbH
% is greatly appreciated,
%
% %\vspace*{4mm}
% \item Collaborators:
% Dr. McCallen (UCOP and LBNL),
% Prof. Buckle (UNR),
% Dr. Kammerer (UCB/PEER),
% Dr. Budnitz (LBNL),
% Prof. Kavvas (UCD),
% Prof. Sett (UB),
% Mr. Orbovi{\'c} (CNSC)
% Prof. Pisan{\`o} (TU Delft),
% Mr. Watanabe (Shimizu),
% Mr. Vlaski (AREVA NP GmbH),
% and
% UCD students:
% Mr. Abell,
% Mr. Karapiperis,
% Mr. Feng,
% Mr. Sinha,
% Mr. Luo
% %
% %
% \end{itemize}
%
% % \vspace*{-6mm}
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% % \includegraphics[width=2.20cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Conferences/2014/DOE_Natural_Phenomena_Hazards_Germantown_MD-21-22Oct/present/Model01.jpeg}
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% \frametitle{High Fidelity Modeling and Simulation}
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%
% Some soil-structure features of SMR are similar with LWRs
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% \begin{figure}[!hbpt]
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% \hspace*{-0.5cm}
% \includegraphics[width=3.5cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Conferences/2014/ASME_SMR_Symposium/present/SMR01_a.jpg}
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% \frametitle{Inform Designers and Regulators}
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% \includegraphics[width=2.10cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Conferences/2014/DOE_Natural_Phenomena_Hazards_Germantown_MD-21-22Oct/present/Model02.jpeg}
% \includegraphics[width=2.10cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Conferences/2014/DOE_Natural_Phenomena_Hazards_Germantown_MD-21-22Oct/present/Model03.jpeg}
% \includegraphics[width=2.10cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Conferences/2014/DOE_Natural_Phenomena_Hazards_Germantown_MD-21-22Oct/present/Model04.jpeg}
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