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\title{\huge NRC ESSI Simulator}
\author{Boris Jeremi{\'c}, Robert J. Budnitz, Annie M. Kammerer}
\institute[UCD, LBNL, US-NRC]{
University of California, Davis;
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory;
United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission}
\date[Sept 2012]{Sept. 2012}
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% \begin{block}{ESSI Benefits and Detriments}
\vspace*{0.3cm}
\begin{block}{Earthquake Soil Structure Interaction Modeling: Benefits and Detriments}
\begin{itemize}
\item Improved accuracy of Earthquake Soil Structure
Interaction (ESSI) modeling and simulation benefits
understanding of seismic behavior of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs)
\item Reduction of modeling uncertainty! In other words, we will know with
much more fidelity what is the actual seismic response of an NPP
\item Benefit: reduction of seismic energy
input due to energy dissipation of nonlinear material
\item Benefit and Detriment: seismic motion frequency content
change
\end{itemize}
\end{block}
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\begin{block}{Introduction to the NRC ESSI Simulator}
A collaborative project between
% \begin{itemize}
% \item[]
University of California, Davis ({\bf UCD}),
% \item[]
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory ({\bf LBNL}), and
% \item[]
United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission ({\bf U.S. NRC})
% \end{itemize}
to develop a High Fidelity
Modeling and Simulation System for Time Domain, Nonlinear Finite
Element Analysis of
Earthquake Soil/Rock Structure Interaction (ESSI) response of NPPs.
\end{block}
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\begin{block}{NRC ESSI Simulator System Components}
\begin{itemize}
\item {\bf The NRC ESSI Program}: a 3D, nonlinear, time domain,
parallel finite element program specifically developed for
High Fidelity modeling and simulation of Earthquake Soil/Rock Structure
Interaction (ESSI) problems for NPPs on NRC-ESSI-Computer. \
%The NRC ESSI Program is based on
%a number of public domain numerical libraries developed at UCD as well as those
%available on the web, that are compiled and linked together to form the
%executable program (NRC-ESSI-Program). Significant effort is devoted to development
%of verification and validation procedures, as well as on development of
%extensive documentation. NRC-ESSI-Program is in public domain and is licensed
%through the Lesser GPL.
%\vspace*{0.3cm}
%\vspace*{0.3cm}
\item {\bf The NRC ESSI Computer}: a distributed memory
parallel computer, a cluster of clusters with multiple performance
processors and multiple performance networks.
%Compute nodes are Shared Memory Parallel
%(SMP) computers, that are connected, using high speed network(s), into a
%Distributed Memory Parallel (DMP) computer.
%\vspace*{0.3cm}
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\item {\bf The NRC ESSI Notes}: a hypertext
documentation system
detailing modeling and simulation of NPP ESSI
problems.
%
%\vspace*{0.3cm}
\end{itemize}
\end{block}
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\begin{block}{NRC ESSI Program}
\begin{itemize}
\item Library Centric design and management approach (libraries:
CompGeoMech UCD libs, MOSS, PETSc, UMFPACK, LAPACK, BLAS, Ltensor)
%\item Open Source License (Creative Commons)
\item Application Programming Interface (API) documented in detail
\item Finite elements: Solids (single phase (u), fully coupled, porous solid -- pore fluid,
(u-p-U, u-p)), structural (truss, beams, shells), special elements (gap,
contact, gap--contact, seismic isolators: frictional, rubber, lead-rubber)
\item Material models: linear and nonlinear elastic, isotropic and anisotropic,
elastic-plastic (von Mises, Drucker-Prager, Mohr-Coulomb, SANIsand,
Dafalias-Manzari, Pisan{\`o}-EP (calibrated from G/G$_{max}$ curves), all can be perfectly plastic, isotropic hardening or softening
and/or translational and/or rotational kinematic hardening
(A-F type);
%(Armstrong-Frederick type);
\item Staged loading (self weight, service loads, hazard loads, seismic loads,
aftershocks, etc.)
\item Seismic Input, analytic, using Domain Reduction Method, incorporates
seismic body (S, P) and surface (Rayleigh, Love) waves
\item Buoyancy effects (fluid pressure on embedded foundation) modeled
analytically (with full coupling with pore fluid pressures changes in foundation
soil/rock)
\item Parallel computations using Plastic Domain Decomposition method, for
efficient run time computational load balancing (for inelastic computations)
\item Domain Specific Language for model input
%
\end{itemize}
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\begin{block}{Verification and Validation}
The NRC ESSI Program has an extensive (and ever growing) verification and
validation suite. This ensures the highest possible quality of numerical
prediction results.
\begin{itemize}
%\vspace*{-1mm}
\item Verification: a Mathematics issue, provides evidence that the
model is solved correctly.
%\vspace*{-1mm}
\item Validation: a Physics issue, provides
evidence that the correct model is solved.
%\vspace*{-1mm}
\item Prediction: use of computational model to foretell the state of a
physical system under consideration under conditions for which the
computational model has not been validated.
\end{itemize}
\vspace*{-3mm}
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\begin{block}{NRC ESSI Computer}
\begin{itemize}
\item NRC ESSI Computer is a distributed memory parallel \\
(DMP) computer designed for high performance, parallel \\
finite element simulations using NRC ESSI Program
\item Multiple performance CPUs and Networks (on-board, \\
InfiniBand, GigaBit) can be effectively used
\item Most cost-performance effective design (BeoWulf)
\item NRC ESSI Program runs most efficiently on the \\
NRC ESSI Computer, however, it is also source \\
compatible with
any DMP supercomputers (any large national supercomputer or
any other cluster parallel computer)
\item Industry standard Message Passing Interface (MPI) for
communication between compute nodes
\item Current setup: 208 CPU cores, 288 GB RAM, 24TB disk space,
triple network (on-board, Gigabit and InfiniBand)
\item By Spring 2013: 592 CPU cores, 800 GB RAM, 40TB disk space,
triple network
\item By Fall 2013: 784 CPU cores, 1056 GB RAM, 48TB disk space,
triple network
\end{itemize}
\vspace*{-21.5cm}
\begin{flushright}
\hspace*{0.3cm}
\includegraphics[width=13.2cm]{/home/jeremic/public_html/NRC_ESSI_Simulator/NRC_ESSI_Computer/photos/IMG_2607.JPG}
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\vspace*{11.5cm}
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\begin{block}{NRC ESSI Notes}
A hypertext documentation system describing in detail
modeling and simulations of NPP ESSI
problems:
% The system consists of four parts:
\begin{itemize}
\item Theoretical and Computational Formulations:
Finite Element Methods,
Elasto-Plasticity,
Static and Dynamic Solutions,
Parallel Computing
\item Software and Hardware Platform:
Object Oriented Design,
Library Centric Design,
Application Programing Interface (API for the source code),
Domain Specific Language (DSL, C and English language bindings),
Software Build Process,
Hardware Platform
\item Verification and Validation (V\&V):
Verification:
code,
components (elements, algorithms),
static and dynamic solution advancement,
wave propagation,
Earthquake Soil Structure Interaction;
Validation:
material modeling,
wave propagation,
Earthquake Soil Structure Interaction
\item Application to Practical Nuclear Power Plant Earthquake Soil/Rock Structure
Interaction Problems (case studies):
\begin{itemize}
\item ESSI with 3D, inclined, uncorrelated seismic waves,
\item ESSI with nonlinear soil/rock and foundation slip,
\item ESSI with seismic base isolators, horizontal and vertical
isolation benefits and detriments,
\item ESSI with nonlinear soil/rock, base isolators and
nonlinear structural response,
\item ESSI analysis for high frequency response,
\item ESSI for design basis earthquakes, full nonlinear response (from
the list above), safety margins determination,
\item ESSI for large, beyond design basis earthquakes, full nonlinear
response (from the list above), safety margins determination
\end{itemize}
\item Draft of the NRC ESSI Notes is available at:
\url{http://nrc-essi-simulator.info/}
\end{itemize}
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\begin{block}{Stochastic Modeling}
In addition to deterministic modeling and simulations,
recently developed Probabilistic Elasto-Plasticity (PEP) and
Stochastic Elastic-Plastic Finite Element Methods (SEPFEM)
(Jeremi{\'c} et al.), are currently being integrated into the
NRC ESSI Simulator. This will allow for very accurate (analytic,
using solution to Fokker -- Planck -- Kolmogorov equation for PEP)
development of full Probability Density Functions (PDFs) for
generalized displacements, stress, strain, etc. From
developed PDFs one can easily develop full Cumulative Density Functions (CDFs) aka fragility curves
for any part/components of the NPP soil/rock-structure system.
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\begin{block}{Verification Example (select)}
Verification: Inclined (at 45$^o$), 3D, body and surface seismic wave field:
\begin{footnotesize}
\hspace*{-1.5cm}
\centering
\begin{tabular}{ccccc}
Models
&
Stress Drop
&
Disp. H$\downarrow$ V$\uparrow$
&
Acc. H$\downarrow$ V$\uparrow$
&
Radiation H$\downarrow$ V$\uparrow$
\\
\includegraphics[width=8.0cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Thesis/NimaTafazzoli/wave_propagation/figs/FaultSlipModel2km.pdf}
&
\includegraphics[width=7.0cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Thesis/NimaTafazzoli/wave_propagation/figs/input_ricker/displacement.pdf}
%\includegraphics[width=7.0cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Thesis/NimaTafazzoli/wave_propagation/figs/ricker_2km/top_middle_comparison_disp_x.pdf}
&
\includegraphics[width=7.0cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Thesis/NimaTafazzoli/wave_propagation/figs/ricker_2km/top_middle_comparison_disp_z.pdf}
%\includegraphics[width=7.0cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Thesis/NimaTafazzoli/wave_propagation/figs/ricker_2km/top_middle_comparison_disp_z.pdf}
&
\includegraphics[width=7.0cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Thesis/NimaTafazzoli/wave_propagation/figs/ricker_2km/top_middle_comparison_accel_z.pdf}
&
\includegraphics[width=7.0cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Thesis/NimaTafazzoli/wave_propagation/figs/ricker_2km/10_40_disp_x.pdf}
\\
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\includegraphics[width=8.0cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Thesis/NimaTafazzoli/wave_propagation/figs/DRMModel.pdf}
&
\includegraphics[width=7.0cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Thesis/NimaTafazzoli/wave_propagation/figs/input_ricker/FFT.pdf}
%\includegraphics[width=7.0cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Thesis/NimaTafazzoli/wave_propagation/figs/ricker_2km/10_40_disp_x.pdf}
&
\includegraphics[width=7.0cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Thesis/NimaTafazzoli/wave_propagation/figs/ricker_2km/top_middle_comparison_disp_x.pdf}
%\includegraphics[width=7.0cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Thesis/NimaTafazzoli/wave_propagation/figs/ricker_2km/10_40_accel_x.pdf}
&
\includegraphics[width=7.0cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Thesis/NimaTafazzoli/wave_propagation/figs/ricker_2km/top_middle_comparison_accel_x.pdf}
&
\includegraphics[width=7.0cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Thesis/NimaTafazzoli/wave_propagation/figs/ricker_2km/10_40_accel_x.pdf}
\end{tabular}
\end{footnotesize}
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\begin{block}{Nonlinear Example (select)}
Gapping--Slipping at the foundation--soil/rock contact, for full 3D
(at 45$^o$, horizontal and vertical, body and surface) seismic wave:
\begin{footnotesize}
\begin{figure}[!h]
\begin{minipage}{.20\textwidth}
\centering
\hspace*{-2.5cm}
\begin{tabular}{ccc}
Model and Input
&
Acc. H $\uparrow$ and FFT $\downarrow$
&
Acc. V $\uparrow$ and FFT $\downarrow$
\\
{\includegraphics[width=5.0cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Conferences/2011/NRC_LBNL_Review_Panel_Feb2011/Case_study_model/visit0002.jpeg}}
&
\includegraphics[width=6.0truecm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Thesis/NimaTafazzoli/SSI_Contact_Element_01_13/figs/91_97/top_structure_x_acceleration.pdf}
&
\includegraphics[width=6.0truecm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Thesis/NimaTafazzoli/SSI_Contact_Element_01_13/figs/91_97/top_structure_z_acceleration.pdf}
\\
\includegraphics[width=5cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Thesis/NimaTafazzoli/SSI_Contact_Element_01_13/figs/Ricker/acceleration.pdf}
%\includegraphics[width=5cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Thesis/NimaTafazzoli/SSI_Contact_Element_01_13/figs/Ricker/FFT.pdf}
% \includegraphics[width=0.95\linewidth]{images/viola/m-012-2.png}
&
\includegraphics[width=6.0truecm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Thesis/NimaTafazzoli/SSI_Contact_Element_01_13/figs/91_97/top_structure_x_acceleration_FFT.pdf}
&
\includegraphics[width=6.0truecm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Thesis/NimaTafazzoli/SSI_Contact_Element_01_13/figs/91_97/top_structure_z_acceleration_FFT.pdf}
\end{tabular}
\end{minipage}
%
\hspace*{9.2cm}
%\hfill
%
\begin{minipage}{.150\textwidth}
\begin{tiny}
\begin{figure}[H]
\begin{center}
\caption*{\footnotesize Gaping Response}
\begin{tabular}{ccc}
%\hline
$4.5s$
&
$4.6s$
&
$4.7s$
\\
\includegraphics[width=2.2truecm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Thesis/NimaTafazzoli/SSI_Contact_Element_01_13/figs/Gap_Slide_Magnitude_91_9pieces/gap450.pdf}
&
\includegraphics[width=2.2truecm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Thesis/NimaTafazzoli/SSI_Contact_Element_01_13/figs/Gap_Slide_Magnitude_91_9pieces/gap460.pdf}
&
\includegraphics[width=2.2truecm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Thesis/NimaTafazzoli/SSI_Contact_Element_01_13/figs/Gap_Slide_Magnitude_91_9pieces/gap470.pdf}
\\
$4.8s$
&
$4.9s$
&
$5.0s$
\\
\includegraphics[width=2.2truecm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Thesis/NimaTafazzoli/SSI_Contact_Element_01_13/figs/Gap_Slide_Magnitude_91_9pieces/gap480.pdf}
&
\includegraphics[width=2.2truecm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Thesis/NimaTafazzoli/SSI_Contact_Element_01_13/figs/Gap_Slide_Magnitude_91_9pieces/gap490.pdf}
&
\includegraphics[width=2.2truecm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Thesis/NimaTafazzoli/SSI_Contact_Element_01_13/figs/Gap_Slide_Magnitude_91_9pieces/gap500.pdf}
\\
$5.1s$
&
$5.2s$
&
$5.3s$
\\
\includegraphics[width=2.2truecm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Thesis/NimaTafazzoli/SSI_Contact_Element_01_13/figs/Gap_Slide_Magnitude_91_9pieces/gap510.pdf}
&
\includegraphics[width=2.2truecm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Thesis/NimaTafazzoli/SSI_Contact_Element_01_13/figs/Gap_Slide_Magnitude_91_9pieces/gap520.pdf}
&
\includegraphics[width=2.2truecm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Thesis/NimaTafazzoli/SSI_Contact_Element_01_13/figs/Gap_Slide_Magnitude_91_9pieces/gap530.pdf}
\end{tabular}
\label{fig:3d_ricker1000_gap_9}
\end{center}
\end{figure}
\end{tiny}
\end{minipage}
%
\hspace*{3cm}
%\hfill
%
\begin{minipage}{.1500\textwidth}
\begin{tiny}
\begin{figure}[H]
\begin{center}
\caption*{\footnotesize Slipping Response}
\begin{tabular}{ccc}
%\hline
$4.5s$
&
$4.6s$
&
$4.7s$
\\
\includegraphics[width=2.2truecm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Thesis/NimaTafazzoli/SSI_Contact_Element_01_13/figs/Gap_Slide_Magnitude_91_9pieces/slide450.pdf}
&
\includegraphics[width=2.2truecm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Thesis/NimaTafazzoli/SSI_Contact_Element_01_13/figs/Gap_Slide_Magnitude_91_9pieces/slide460.pdf}
&
\includegraphics[width=2.2truecm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Thesis/NimaTafazzoli/SSI_Contact_Element_01_13/figs/Gap_Slide_Magnitude_91_9pieces/slide470.pdf}
\\
$4.8s$
&
$4.9s$
&
$5.0s$
\\
\includegraphics[width=2.2truecm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Thesis/NimaTafazzoli/SSI_Contact_Element_01_13/figs/Gap_Slide_Magnitude_91_9pieces/slide480.pdf}
&
\includegraphics[width=2.2truecm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Thesis/NimaTafazzoli/SSI_Contact_Element_01_13/figs/Gap_Slide_Magnitude_91_9pieces/slide490.pdf}
&
\includegraphics[width=2.2truecm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Thesis/NimaTafazzoli/SSI_Contact_Element_01_13/figs/Gap_Slide_Magnitude_91_9pieces/slide500.pdf}
\\
$5.1s$
&
$5.2s$
&
$5.3s$
\\
\includegraphics[width=2.2truecm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Thesis/NimaTafazzoli/SSI_Contact_Element_01_13/figs/Gap_Slide_Magnitude_91_9pieces/slide510.pdf}
&
\includegraphics[width=2.2truecm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Thesis/NimaTafazzoli/SSI_Contact_Element_01_13/figs/Gap_Slide_Magnitude_91_9pieces/slide520.pdf}
&
\includegraphics[width=2.2truecm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Thesis/NimaTafazzoli/SSI_Contact_Element_01_13/figs/Gap_Slide_Magnitude_91_9pieces/slide530.pdf}
%\\
%
%\hline
\end{tabular}
%\caption{Distribution of sliding along the contact interface for Ricker wave
%(gray scale given in meters)}
\label{fig:3d_ricker1000_slide_9}
\end{center}
\end{figure}
\end{tiny}
\end{minipage}
\end{figure}
%
\end{footnotesize}
\vspace*{-1.2cm}
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\vspace*{0.1cm}
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\begin{block}{Current Example Problem}
Representative NPP, emphasis on very accurate modeling and simulation of:
\begin{itemize}
\item Body and surface seismic wave effects,
\vspace*{-1mm}
\item Elastic-plastic soil/rock and structures,
\vspace*{-1mm}
\item Inelastic contact/gap (foundation-soil)
\vspace*{-1mm}
\item Seismic isolator effects
\vspace*{-1mm}
\item Buoyant effects for embedded foundations
\vspace*{-1mm}
\item Seismic wave frequencies $\le$ 50Hz
\vspace*{-1mm}
\item High Fidelity model: soil/rock block: \\
230m $\times$ 230m $\times$ 100m, foundation slab 90m $\times$ 90m, \\
Containment Structure: 40m $\times$ 50m, 2.1 Million DOFs, 700,000 elements,
\end{itemize}
\vspace*{-12.0cm}
\begin{flushright}
%\vspace*{-0.3cm}
\includegraphics[width=13.0cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Conferences/2012/Seismic_research_issues_for_NPPs/Large_NPP_model_01A.jpg}
\hspace*{0.6cm}
%\includegraphics[width=8.0cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Conferences/2012/Seismic_research_issues_for_NPPs/Large_NPP_model_05A.jpg}
%\includegraphics[width=6.0cm]{/home/jeremic/public_html/NRC_ESSI_Simulator/NRC_ESSI_Computer/photos/IMG_2609.JPG}
%\includegraphics[width=8.0cm]{/home/jeremic/public_html/NRC_ESSI_Simulator/NRC_ESSI_Computer/photos/IMG_2611.JPG}
\end{flushright}
\vspace*{2.0cm}
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\begin{block}{NRC ESSI Simulator License}
A version of
{\bf Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)
license}, for components and the system.
%
% Full details of this license are available through the NRC ESSI Simulator web
% site {\texttt http://nrc-essi-simulator.info} or from Boris Jeremi{\'c}.
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\begin{block}{Education is the Key!}
Available are: short courses, lectures, advising and consultancy, etc.
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\begin{block}{Current and Former Student Collaborators and Developers}
\begin{itemize}
\item
Drs:
Guanzhou Jie,
Matthias Preisig,
Zhao Cheng,
Nima Tafazzoli,
Federico Pisan{\`o};
\item
Professors:
Zhaohui Yang,
Kallol Sett,
Mahdi Taiebat;
\item
Students:
Panagiota Tasiopoulou,
Babak Kamranimoghadam,
Chang-Gyun Jeong,
Jos{\`e} Abell Mena,
Benjamin Aldridge,
Justin Anderson;
\end{itemize}
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\begin{block}{Acknowledgement}
The NRC ESSI Simulator System is developed in close collaboration and with
funding from the U.S. NRC. Such support is greatly appreciated.
Additional partial funding from CNSC/CCSN, US DOE and US NSF is also much appreciated.
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