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\title[PRENOLIN \\ November 2013 Meeting]
{PRENOLIN \\ November 2013 Meeting}
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{ Professor, University of California, Davis, CA\\
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Faculty Scientist, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA }
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{\small Nice, France}
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\section{PRENOLIN Questionnaire}
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\subsection*{PRENOLIN Questionnaire}
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\begin{frame}
\frametitle{Questions and Answers}
\begin{itemize}
\item Definition of the cases to be investigated (information on the input and
soil profiles): {\bf it was clear}
\item Were the indications on the computations clear for you? {\bf Yes}
\item Additional assumptions required by your particular numerical scheme or
code that was not included in the initial information ? For example,
\begin{itemize}
\item Did you perform some deconvolution of the input signal? {\bf No (it was forbidden?)},
although we could use a full wave field for a much more analytic seismic
input method
\item Did you remove the free surface effect on the given input signal before
computing the wave propagation? {\bf No}
\item Did you use pressure dependency for the profile of Non-Linear
characteristics ? {\bf Yes}, Pisan{\`o} model is a full 3D incremental
elastic-plastic material model
\end{itemize}
\end{itemize}
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\begin{frame}
\frametitle{Questions and Answers}
\begin{itemize}
\item Was the number of computations too high or reasonable? {\bf It was reasonable};
Is it possible to reduce them? {\bf No, actually the opposite it true!}; how much time did you spend? {\bf a bit}
\item What kind of comparison would you like to see? {\bf full verification and
validation (V\&V) process.}
\item Did the organizers forget something? {\bf This initial effort is good starting
point, it could/should be expanded with a hierarchy of more
realistic/sophisticated models and their V\&V (comparison is not a verification)}
\item Something you want to highlight (on your results or anything else...):
{\bf There is much more to be done for a full, realistic,
analysis of earthquake soil structure interaction (ESSI) for Nuclear Power Plants.}
\end{itemize}
\end{frame}
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\begin{frame}
\frametitle{ESSI Problems: List of Highlights}
\begin{itemize}
\item Complexity of ground motions (6D, body and surface waves, lack of
correlation, etc.)
\item Inelastic (elastic-plastic, damage...) behavior of rock, soil, concrete
(dry and/or saturated), appropriate modeling (less or more sophisticated
material models, etc.)
\item Inelastic behavior of foundation -- soil/rock zone (gaping, slipping, dry
and/or saturated)
\item Buoyancy effects (for embedded foundations)
\item Timing and location of energy dissipation in ESSI system
\item Base isolation effects
\item Stochastic/Probabilistic inelastic modeling and simulations using
Stochastic Elastic Plastic Finite Element Method
\item Verification and Validation processes and procedures
\end{itemize}
\end{frame}
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\begin{frame}
\frametitle{Comments on Models Used}
\begin{itemize}
\item ESSI Simulator program used (see my {my web})
\item 3D solid finite elements (27 node bricks) used with appropriate
boundary conditions (shear beam)
\item Pisan{\`o} material model, a 3D incremental elastic plastic bounding
surface material
model with vanishing elastic region. There was no soil volume change data
(which can make a big difference), so we assumed soil does not exhibit a
volume change (non-realistic). Unrealistic damping curves (leveling off for
higher strains)?
\item Finite element size, 1m, so that we can pick up to 30Hz, with 2
quadratic finite elements per wave length, with given stiffness (from $G/G_{max}$ at about 1~\%)
\item Mesh size effects tested with Ormsby wavelets
\end{itemize}
\end{frame}
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\begin{frame}
\frametitle{Comments on Models Used, cont'd.}
\begin{itemize}
\item No data on rate effects of $G/G_{max}$ and damping curves
\item Three energy dissipation modes (frictional, viscous, numerical)
\item For linear elastic models, none of those energy dissipation mechanisms
were used! Results are given as undamped (initially excited and then free)
vibrations). This is the best way to perform verification.
\item For visco-elastic models, a small amount of Rayleigh damping was used.
(as requested by PRENOLIN team)
\item For nonlinear models, frictional damping (elastic-plastic), with a
small amount of viscous damping (within a material model) and a small amount
of numerical damping (through Newmark integration algorithm) was used.
\end{itemize}
\end{frame}
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\begin{frame}
\frametitle{Comments on Models Used, cont'd.}
\begin{itemize}
\item Boundary condition at the bottom: Currently only fixed condition is
used. We could have used a full wave field to have a radiation damping
(elastic rock beneath in full 3D) but that would have required deconvolution
(development of full wave field) and this was specifically forbidden..
\item It would be much (!) better to define a complete wave field at the
bottom and then use the Domain Reduction Method (DRM) as DRM allows for
analytic input of seismic motions in 3D!
\end{itemize}
\end{frame}
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\section{Numerical Modeling and Simulation of ESSI}
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\subsection*{Numerical Modeling and Simulation of ESSI}
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\begin{frame}
\frametitle{Numerical Modeling and Simulation of ESSI}
\begin{itemize}
\item {\bf Hypothesis:} Interplay of Earthquake, Soil/Rock and Structure.
in time and space, plays major role in successes and failures.
\item {\bf High fidelity} numerical models for accurate following of
the flow of seismic energy within the soil/rock structure interaction system
\item {{\bf Verification} provides evidence that the
model is solved correctly.} Mathematics issue.
%\vspace*{0.2cm}
\item {{\bf Validation} provides
evidence that the correct model is solved.} Physics issue.
%\vspace*{0.2cm}
\item {\bf Prediction}: use of computational model to foretell the state of a
physical system under consideration under conditions for which the
computational model has not been validated.
% \vspace*{0.2cm}
\item {\bf Low Kolmogorov Complexity} predictive capabilities
\end{itemize}
\end{frame}
%
%
% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% \begin{frame}
% \frametitle{Role of Verification and Validation}
%
%
% \begin{figure}[!h]
% \begin{center}
% \hspace*{-2cm}
% %{\includegraphics[width=5.0cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Conferences/2012/ASME_V_and_V_symposium/presentetation/RoleVV_NEW_knowledge.pdf}}
% {\includegraphics[width=8.5cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Conferences/2011/USNCCM11_Minneapolis/Coupled/Present/VandV_ODEN.jpg}}
% \hspace*{-2cm}
% \end{center}
% \end{figure}
%
% {Oden et al.}
% %{Oberkampf et al. \hspace*{4cm} Oden et al.}
% %
% %\item Models available (some now, some later)
% %\vspace*{-2.0cm}
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%
%
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% \begin{frame}
% \frametitle{Validation and Application Domains -- No Overlap}
%
%
% %\vspace*{0.3cm}
%
% \begin{figure}[!h]
% \begin{center}
% %\vspace*{-2.5cm}
% {\includegraphics[width=4.0cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Presentation/2004/VandV/VPI03.pdf}}
% %\vspace*{-5.0cm}
% \end{center}
% \end{figure}
%
% %\vspace*{-0.5cm}
%
% \begin{itemize}
% \item Inference $\Rightarrow$ probabilistic modeling and numerical
% simulation (deterministic is a special case)
% % % \item Validation domain is actually an aggregation of tests and thus might not
% % % be convex (bifurcation of behavior)
% % \item Current experiments $\Rightarrow$ non--overlapping validation and
% % application domains
% % % \item We have to rely on {\bf Modeling} and {\bf Numerical Simulation}
% \end{itemize}
%
% \end{frame}
%
%
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\begin{frame}
\frametitle{Uncertainty in Modeling}
\begin{itemize}
%\vspace*{0.3cm}
\item Simplified (or inadequate/wrong) modeling: important features are
missed (seismic ground motions, uncertainty in material modeling etc.)
%\vspace*{0.2cm}
\item Introduction of uncertainty and (unknown) lack of accuracy in results due
to use of un-verified simulation tools (software quality, numerics
artifacts, etc.)
%\vspace*{0.2cm}
\item Introduction of uncertainty and (unknown) lack of accuracy in results due
to use of un-validated models (lack of validation experiments)
% (still missing data, experiments under
% uncertainty, for more see below)
\item Example:
\begin{itemize}
\item {Complexity of and uncertainty in ground motions}
\item {Complexity of and uncertainty in material modeling (spatial
variability, testing errors, transformation errors)}
\end{itemize}
\end{itemize}
\end{frame}
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\begin{frame}
\frametitle{Stress Test Ground Motions: Ormsby Wavelet}
\begin{figure}[!hbpt]
%\vspace*{-1.4cm}
\begin{center}
%\hspace*{12mm}
{\includegraphics[width=5.0cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Conferences/2013/PRENOLIN/Presentation/Ormsby_time_domain.jpeg}}
%\hspace*{12mm}
{\includegraphics[width=5.0cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Conferences/2013/PRENOLIN/Presentation/Ormsby_frequency_domain.jpeg}}
%\hspace*{12mm}
\end{center}
\end{figure}
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\begin{frame}
\frametitle{Mesh Size Effects Analysis Results}
\begin{center}
\begin{figure}
\includegraphics[scale=0.40]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Conferences/2013/NRC_Short_Course_May2013/Present/Present03_img/Vs1000_15Hz_10m.eps}
\end{figure}
{\small (Case 1, Vs = 1000 m/s, Cutoff Fq. = 15 Hz, E. Size = 10 m)}
\end{center}
\end{frame}
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\begin{frame}
\frametitle{SPT Based Determination of Shear Strength}
\begin{figure}[!hbpt]
\begin{center}
%
\includegraphics[width=5.0truecm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Papers/2008/JGGE-GoverGmax/figures/ShearStrength_RawData_and_MeanTrend-Mod.pdf}
\hfill
\includegraphics[width=5.0truecm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Papers/2008/JGGE-GoverGmax/figures/ShearStrength_Histogram_PearsonIV-FineTuned-Mod.pdf}
%
\end{center}
\end{figure}
\vspace*{-0.3cm}
Transformation of SPT $N$-value $\rightarrow$ un-drained shear
strength, $s_u$ (cf. Phoon and Kulhawy (1999B)
Histogram of the residual
(w.r.t the deterministic transformation
equation) un-drained strength,
along with fitted probability density function
(Pearson IV)
\end{frame}
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\begin{frame}
\frametitle{SPT Based Determination of Young's Modulus}
\begin{figure}[!hbpt]
\begin{center}
%
\includegraphics[width=5.0truecm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Papers/2008/JGGE-GoverGmax/figures/YoungModulus_RawData_and_MeanTrend_01-Ed.pdf}
\hfill
\includegraphics[width=5.0truecm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Papers/2008/JGGE-GoverGmax/figures/YoungModulus_Histogram_Normal_01-Ed.pdf}
%
\end{center}
\end{figure}
\vspace*{-0.3cm}
Transformation of SPT $N$-value $\rightarrow$ 1-D Young's modulus, $E$ (cf. Phoon and Kulhawy (1999B))
Histogram of the residual (w.r.t the deterministic transformation equation) Young's modulus, along with fitted probability density function
\end{frame}
%
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%
% \begin{frame}
% \frametitle{ESSI Simulator System}
%
% ESSI Simulator System, a US-NRC, CNSC, US-NSF and US-DOE project to
% develop realistic earthquake soil structure interaction modeling and simulation
% capabilities:
%
% \begin{itemize}
%
% \item {\bf The ESSI-Program} is a 3D, nonlinear, time domain,
% parallel finite element program specifically developed for
% High Fidelity modeling and simulation of Earthquake Soil/Rock Structure
% Interaction problems on ESSI-Computer. \
% %The NRC ESSI Program is based on
% %a number of public domain numerical libraries developed at UCD as well as those
% %available on the web, that are compiled and linked together to form the
% %executable program (ESSI-Program). Significant effort is devoted to development
% %of verification and validation procedures, as well as on development of
% %extensive documentation. ESSI-Program is in public domain and is licensed
% %through the Lesser GPL.
%
% %\vspace*{0.3cm}
% \vspace*{0.1cm}
% \item {\bf The ESSI-Computer} is a distributed memory
% parallel computer, a cluster of clusters, with multiple performance
% processors and multiple performance networks.
% %Compute nodes are Shared Memory Parallel
% %(SMP) computers, that are connected, using high speed network(s), into a
% %Distributed Memory Parallel (DMP) computer.
%
% %\vspace*{0.3cm}
% \vspace*{0.1cm}
% \item {\bf The ESSI-Notes} represent a hypertext
% documentation system
% %(Theory and Formulation, Software and Hardware, Verification and Validation, and
% %Case Studies and Practical Examples)
% detailing modeling and simulation of ESSI
% problems.
% %
% %the
% %ESSI-Program code API (application Programming Interface) and DSLs (Domain
% %Specific Language).
% %%ESSI-Notes, developed by Boris Jeremic and collaborators, are in public
% %domain
% %%and are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
% %%License.
% %
% %\vspace*{0.3cm}
% \end{itemize}
%
% \end{frame}
%
%
%
%
%
% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% \begin{frame}
%
%
%
%
% \frametitle{ESSI Simulator System: Modeling Status}
%
%
% \begin{itemize}
%
% \item Analytic input of 6D ground motions
%
% \item Inelastic soil (single and dual phase), rock, concrete,
% steel
%
% \item Inelastic foundation -- soil/rock contact zone (slip and gap, dry and saturated)
%
% \item Buoyancy effects with pumping
%
% \item Piles (single and groups)
%
% \item Base isolation effects (isolators, dampers, rubber (natural or
% neoprene), frictional pendulum)
%
%
%
% \item Uncertainties in material (LHS) and earthquakes (RHS): Stochastic
% Elastic Plastic Finite Element Method
%
% \item High performance sequential and parallel computing
%
% \item Verification and Validation procedures and processes
%
% \item Documentation, extensive
%
% \end{itemize}
%
%
%
%
% \end{frame}
%
%
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\begin{frame}
\frametitle{Final Goal?}
\begin{figure}[!hb]
\begin{flushleft}
%\vspace*{-0.3cm}
\hspace*{-3mm}
\includegraphics[width=2.0cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Thesis/BabakKamrani/NPP_model_01/mesh08.jpeg}
%\hspace*{-3mm}
\includegraphics[width=1.0cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Thesis/BabakKamrani/NPP_model_01/mesh01.jpeg}
%\hspace*{-3mm}
\includegraphics[width=2.0cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/Thesis/BabakKamrani/NPP_model_01/mesh05.jpeg}
\hspace*{-3mm}
\label{ModelMesh01}
\end{flushleft}
\end{figure}
\vspace*{-1.9cm}
%
\begin{figure}[!hb]
\begin{flushright}
%\vspace*{-0.3cm}
\includegraphics[width=4.0cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/consulting/2013/CNSC/ProgressReports/Progress_report_02_figs/single-NPP-FEM-model.jpg}
\includegraphics[width=6.5cm]{/home/jeremic/tex/works/consulting/2013/CNSC/ProgressReports/Progress_report_02_figs/double-NPP-FEM-model.jpg}
\hspace*{-5mm}
\label{DoubleNPPModel}
%\caption{General disposition of a representative 3D NPP model.}
\end{flushright}
\end{figure}
%\vspace*{2.0cm}
\end{frame}
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\begin{frame}
\frametitle{UCD/LBNL Team}
\begin{itemize}
\item Federico Pisan{\` o} (development and calibration of elastic-plastic $G/G_{max}$
Pisan{\`o} model),
\item Chang-Gyun Jeong (development of elastic FEM models and pre- and
post-processing scripts),
\item Kohei Watanabe (development of elastic-plastic FEM models),
\item Nima Tafazzoli (Pisano model implementation review and improvements),
\item Jose Antonio Abell Mena (review),
\item Boris Jeremi{\' c} (system and model development, lead/guidance,
compilation, review, documentation)
\end{itemize}
\end{frame}
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\end{document}